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At previous peace conferences, the main task was to agree on the conditions for ending the war and restoring peace. Although this involved discussions about the future order of Europe, the main interest was to settle the claims that lay at the origins of the war, and the emphasis was therefore largely retrospective. In the case of Vienna, peace had already been made between France and its main allies before the conference. The peace had been formally achieved by the First Peace of Paris of May 30, 1814. This peace had taken the traditional form of a series of bilateral peace treaties between the various belligerents; in this case, there were six peace treaties between France on the one hand and Great Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia, Sweden and Portugal on the other. These contracts were identical, but for some additional and secret items. Professor Parry published the treatise between France and Great Britain and these separate articles (63 STCs 17). On July 20, 1814, France concluded a seventh peace treaty with Spain (63 STCs 297). Article 32 of the same Treaties provided for the holding of a General Congress in Vienna to “supplement the provisions of the present Treaty”. The peace treaties contained the most important terms of peace, including france`s new borders.

It has been left to the Congress to determine the conditions of the general political and legal order of Europe for the future. Second, the Vienna Order was built on the principle that the great powers – a group in which France has regained its traditional place – would assume a shared responsibility for the overall peace and stability of Europe. The four victorious great powers had already agreed on this principle in various instruments before the Congress of Vienna, the most important of which was the Treaty of Chaumont of 1 March 1814 (63 STCs 83). This “principle of great power” also determined the organization and functioning of the Congress itself. Although more than 200 delegations were present, the most important negotiations and decisions took place in the committees of the Five (Great Britain, Russia, Austria, Prussia and France) and the Eight (including Spain, Sweden and Portugal), thus banishing the other powers to the role of lobbyists for their own interests. As the chief negotiator of the Frenchman Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (1754-1838) said: “Vienna was the congress that was not a congress”. However, the Final Act lacked a provision for the future application of the great power principle, apart from the fact that the eight great powers were bound by all their provisions and were therefore all guarantors of the territorial and legal order of Europe as defined in the Act. This was corrected by the Second Peace of Paris of November 20, 1815. Article 6 of the Treaty of Bilateral Alliance signed between Great Britain and Austria provided for the convening of conferences between the major powers to discuss issues of common interest and the maintenance of peace in Europe.

By its incorporation into the identical peace treaty, this obliged all its signatories. The congress resolved the Polish-Saxon crisis in Vienna and the question of Greek independence in Ljubljana. Three major European congresses were held. The Congress of Aachen (1818) put an end to the occupation of France. The others made no sense, as each nation realized that the Congresses were not to its advantage, as disputes were resolved with a diminishing degree of effectiveness. The differences that were to become were indeed serious. For a considerable period of time, the objectives of Congress seemed to fail. Eventually, the compromise was accelerated by Napoleon`s flight from the island of Elba, the island of his captivity. In the technical sense, the “Congress of Vienna” was not really a congress: it never met in plenary.

Instead, most of the discussions took place in informal face-to-face meetings between the major powers Austria, Britain, France, Russia and sometimes Prussia, with little or no participation of the other delegates. On the other hand, the Congress was the first occasion in history where national representatives met at the continental level to formulate treaties, rather than relying mainly on messages between different capitals. The Congress of Vienna formed the framework of European international policy until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. The Treaty of Chaumont of 1814 had already reaffirmed the decisions already taken, which were to be ratified by the most important Congress of Vienna in 1814-15. These included the establishment of a Confederate Germany, the division of Italy into independent states, the restoration of the Bourbon kings of Spain, and the expansion of the Netherlands around 1830 into modern Belgium. The Treaty of Chaumont became the cornerstone of the European Alliance, which formed the balance of power for decades. [4] Other partial provisions already existed in the Treaty of Paris between France and the Sixth Coalition and in the Treaty of Kiel, which dealt with Scandinavian issues. The Treaty of Paris stipulated that a “General Congress” was to be held in Vienna and that invitations were to be extended to “all the powers involved on both sides in the present war.” [5] The opening was scheduled for July 1814. [6] VIENNA, CONGRESS OF , International Congress in Vienna, September 1814 to June 1815, to restore peace and order in Europe after the Napoleonic Wars. The congress met in the Apollo Hall, built by the English-born Jew Sigmund Wolffsohn, and delegates were often entertained in the salons of Jewish hostesses such as Fanny von *Arnstein and Cecily *Eskeles.

Even Napoleon`s return from elba and the outbreak of a new war did not distract Congress from its forward-looking agenda. The congress was not suspended and a new peace treaty was not concluded in Vienna. After the defeat of Napoleon at Waterloo and the second restoration of the Bourbons to the French throne, new peace treaties were concluded between France and each of the four great powers of the coalition as part of the Second Peace of Paris of 20 November 1815 (65 CTS 251). Many other powers later joined in the peace. The Congress of Vienna was an international congress aimed at restoring peace and restructuring Europe, which was in chaos after nearly two hundred years of war and Napoleon`s monomaniacal attempts to conquer Europe. It was a search for a balance of power in order to avoid future wars and revolutions. The decisions were taken by the four superpowers of Prussia, Russia, Austria and Great Britain. Due to its diplomatic skills, France was also allowed to participate in the decision-making process. As previous conferences had done, the Congress of Vienna produced a whole series of treaties, mainly bilateral. But the conference also chose an innovative form for its conclusion, as its main conclusions were formally established in a general instrument, the Vienna Final Act of 9 June 1815 (64 STCs 453). This law was signed and ratified by the seven powers that had made peace in Paris on May 30, 1814, with the subsequent accession of Spain and other powers.

Article 118 of the Final Act contained 17 treaties concluded in Vienna and annexed them to the instrument, thus obliging all signatories to the Final Act to do so. In return, Article 11 of the Second Peace of Paris later confirmed the Vienna Final Act and the First Peace of Paris. The Jewish question resurfaced at the Aachen Conference (1818), when the powers met to decide on the withdrawal of troops from France and to consider France`s compensation to the Allies. Various Jewish communities turned to the conference for help, and Lewis*Way, an English clergyman, petitioned Alexander I of Russia for emancipation. However, despite a benevolent welcome, there were no practical results. David King, Vienna 1814. How Napoleon`s Conquerors Made Love, War and Peace at the Congress of Vienna (New York: Three Rivers Press, 2008). Revolutions were essentially democratic in nature, with the aim of eliminating old feudal structures and creating independent nation-states. The revolutionary wave began in France in February and immediately spread to most of Europe and parts of Latin America.

More than 50 countries were affected, but without coordination or cooperation between their respective revolutionaries. According to Evans and von Strandmann (2000), some of the main factors that contributed to this were widespread dissatisfaction with the political leadership, demands for greater participation in government and democracy, demands for freedom of the press, demands of the working class, the rise of nationalism, and the regrouping of established government forces. The indecision of the great Allies on how to manage their affairs without provoking a united protest on the part of the small powers led to the convening of a provisional protocol conference to which Talleyrand and the Marquis of Labrador, representatives of Spain, were invited on 30 Sept. 1814. [31] During the wars, Portugal had lost its city of Olivenza to Spain and wanted to have it restored. Portugal is historically Britain`s oldest ally, and with British support, it managed to decree olivenza`s reinstatement in Article CV of the General Treaty of the Final Act, which stated: “The powers that have the justice of the claims of. Portugal and the Brazilians, to the city of Olivenza and the other territories ceded to Spain by the Treaty of Badajoz of 1801”. Portugal ratified the Final Act in 1815, but Spain did not want to sign, and this became the main resistance at the Congress of Vienna. Spain finally decided that it was better to be part of Europe than to stand alone, and finally accepted the treaty on 7 May 1817; However, Olivenza and its surroundings were never brought back under Portuguese control, and this problem remains unsolved. [44].

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